The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages ​​(CEFR) is an international standard for describing language abilities and is used worldwide, although primarily in Europe, and has so far been translated into 39 languages. It was compiled by the Council of Europe in cooperation with the relevant language institutions, with the aim of enabling an objective description of the language competences of foreign language learners from any part of Europe in a way that would be harmonized and easily recognizable between countries. It was first published in 2001.

The CEFR contains guidelines for objectively describing the knowledge and skills of foreign language learners, which are designed in such a way as to provide a very clear basis for curricula and tests for each level. This ensures that a person who passed level B1, for example, in Germany can go to Spain and continue studying at level B2, i.e. that the professors have a clear idea of ​​the language skills and competences of this person even though she did not complete the previous course at their school.

The CEFR distinguishes three basic levels of foreign language knowledge: A (beginner), B (intermediate) and C (advanced) and six sub-levels: A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2 and prescribes in detail what a foreign language student should LEARN and KNOWS upon completion of each of the sublevels, through so-called “CAN-DO” statements.

Exam content

  • Reading comprehension
  • Comprehension of what has been heard
  • Written communication
  • Verbal communication

Texts and tasks

  • Letter (eg complaint, request)
  • Job description
  • Report on practice and training
  • Instructions
  • Dialogues at school and at work
  • Job interview
  • Presentations (eg product presentation) etc.

GER – European Reference Framework

Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR)

Level Description


Elementary use of language

You understand familiar, everyday expressions and can understand and use very basic phrases aimed at meeting the needs of a specific type. You can also imagine where you live, what your hobbies are – thus expressing elementary things in the respective foreign language.


Elementary use of language

You can participate in conversations about everyday topics, generally speaking, you can understand sentences and commonly used expressions that relate to areas of most immediate importance. You can also get along, especially in routine, everyday situations.


Independent use of language

In general, you can easily follow and write about everyday conversations. From an understanding point of view, you can follow everyday speech just fine, as long as no distorting accents are used.


Independent use of language

Your language skills are well developed: you can follow everyday conversations almost effortlessly and write everyday texts. You can also understand more complex texts on concrete as well as more abstract topics, so you can communicate with native speakers as well.


Advanced level of competence

You have a very pronounced, deep knowledge of the respective foreign language: native literature does not cause you problems, you also understand implicit connections in the case of demanding, longer literature. Idioms as well as more unusual phrases are also part of your active vocabulary.


Almost native language skills

They are almost perfect in the appropriate foreign language: they converse with native speakers at almost the same level, they can follow technically complex texts and write them themselves. Discussions, even on very specific topics, cannot upset you, at least in terms of language.
C2 + You have language skills above category C 2. As a non-native speaker, you can, for example, work as a school teacher in another country at this level.